High Blood Sugar : Causes and Symptoms

What Is High Blood Sugar?

The increased level of sugar or glucose in our body is known as hyperglycemia or high blood sugar, which is itself one of the main symptoms of diabetes.

Often, some symptoms of the high blood disturb the patient only at the initial stage of the disease. Some of the main high blood sugar symptoms are described below, but it is not always necessary that a person experiencing high blood sugar shows up with these symptoms.

Causes Of High Blood Sugar

Our body extracts the carbohydrates in the form of glucose from the food we eat. This glucose fuels our body with energy. But glucose can be used by our body only with the help of insulin, this is a hormone made by the pancreas.

When the glucose level rises, the pancreases release insulin to lower the glucose levels. And also, extra glucose is stored in the liver and muscles as “glycogen”. These two processes prevent the buildup of glucose to dangerous levels.

If the body does not produce insulin (type 1 diabetes) or does not produce enough insulin (type 2 diabetes), the sugar levels go high in the blood resulting in hyperglycemia.

Factors Contributing To Hyperglycemia

Some factors believed to contribute to hyperglycemia (after or before being affected) are:

  • Being inactive
  • Not following your diabetes eating plan
  • Having an infection or illness
  • Surgery or injury
  • Stress, like family conflict or excess work
  • Using medications like steroids
  • Taking inadequate insulin or oral diabetes medication, or improperly injecting insulin or using expired insulin.

Illness or stress produces certain hormones that can trigger hyperglycemia which can also the blood sugar to rise. Sometimes, even people who do not suffer from diabetes may develop high blood pressure during severe illness because of such hormones. People already suffering from hyperglycemia may need to take extra medication to keep blood glucose in control during stress or illness.

High Blood Sugar Symptoms

Dry mouth, thirst, frequent urination (including at night) and an increase in urine output: Elimination of sugar with the urine requires a large amount of fluid. This explains the rise in dry mouth, dry skin and thirst.

Itching of the skin: There is itching on the skin caused due to the loss of moisture that leads to dry-skin. Sometimes symptoms like headache and blurred vision are also present.

Weakness, lethargy, fatigue and impaired performance: High blood sugar affects many the body functions and hinders them the body organs to work properly. This will lead to weakness, lethargy, fatigue and impaired performance of the body.

Reduced weight and increased appetite: As sugar from the blood is not utilized as energy due to shortage of insulin, the body searches for alternative energy sources that are not insulin dependant. One such source is the body fat. Because of this, people start to lose weight with a constant feeling of hunger.

Poor healing of skin lesions (sores and scratches), occurrence of boils: High levels of blood sugar reduce immunity causing these symptoms.

The information provided on Health Search Online is for educational purposes only and is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.